The Great Amir Temur
The Great Amir Temur
Amir Temur Taragai Mukhamad Bakhodir ugli was born on April 9 (8), 1336 in the settlement of Khoja Ilgor which was located ten kilometers from the town of Shakhrisabz. In the Middle Ages Shakhrisabz’s name was Kesh. In Europe he was known as Tamerlane or Tumberlane. The name was derived from the Persian Timur - i lang, "Temur the Lame" by Europeans during the 16th century. His father Taragai Mukhammad Bakhodir came from the Barlas clan and he belonged to the elite of the clan. Amir Temur’s mother Tegina Begim Mokh (according to some sources - Nekina) was a Bukharian by birth and she was a daughter of the famous theologist Sadr - ash shariat Ubaydullakh Ibn Akhmad Makhbubi Bukhari.
Amir Temur was brought up in the atmosphere of fighting, competing and hunting, that’s why for him to lose honor was equal to death. The building up of Amir Temur’s character was the result of a number of conflicting events. The well known historian of that time Akhmad Ibn Arabshakh wrote in the Adjaib - al - Makdur book: "Temur’s qaze was steady and quiet. He didn’t know what the fear of death was. He preferred truth, irrespective how bitter it could be to lie and secrecy. Being unbelievably brave and strong, this person made people respect and obey him". In 1360 Temurbek, serving to the Mongolian khan Tugluq Temurkhan became the ruler of Kesh district. At that time Amir Temur had negotiations with the ruler of Balkh Amir Husain with the aim to overthrow the Mongolian Khan Tugluq Temurkhan and put an end to the Mongolian sway over Movarounnahr. However they were defeated and they had to escape to Sistan and collect forces there. In 1364 he and his uncle Khoja Barlas managed to liberate Movaraunnahr from Mongols and take power. In spring of 1366 forces of Amir Khusain and Amir Timur came to Samarkand. In 1370 Amir Timur occupied Samarkand and became the ruler of the whole Movaraunnahr. At that time Amir Husain died.
Amir Temur added the word Kuragon to his name which meant "son in - law" because he married the sister of Amir Husain, a daughter of the representative of the Mongolian clan of Genhisids Kazankhan. Ruling the country Amir Temur had the "Rosti - Rusti" (force is in justice) motto and he always tried his best to follow his motto. The symbol of the new state established by Amir Temur was a sky - blue banner. The well - known scientist, professor of oriental languages and literature of the Pesht University Herman Vamberi writes that the portal of Amir Temur’s palace was crowned by a symbol consisting of three circles which meant Amir Temur’s ruling of three sides of the world, North, South, and West.
From that time Amir Temur’s political campaigns began which lasted 35 years. First of all he separated his power to the white horde Khanate which was located along the Sir - Darya River. In 1372 Amir Temur conquered Khorezm. In 1389 he began fighting against Tokhtamysh who was perfidious toward him. In 1392 the skilful Amir Temur marched on the Caucasus and occupied Georgia and Armenia. In 1395 the skillful fighter defeated Tokhtamysh on the bank of the Terek river and chased him up to Yelets. Some time after Amir Timur conquered the capital of the Golden Horde. In 1398 - 99 he marched on India, conquered its capital, Delhi, and came back to Samarkand. In 1400 Amir Temur defeated the Sultan of Egypt on the territory of Syria. Two years later, in 1402, he gained a crippling victory over the forces of Bayazid.
In 1404 Amir Timur came back to Samarkand and began preparations for the march on China. Without taking the advice of his generals to remain in Samarkand until the spring, Timur and his army planned to advance northwards without delays, encamp at various points near the river Jaxartes and wait for the first sign of spring to strike towards China.
They left Samarkand early in January on a day chosen by the astrologers as auspicious. Thus Tamerlane led an enormous army and departed on his last and most fantastic campaign to conquer China when he was close to seventy years old. He was too weak to walk and had to be carried in a litter. Toward the end of January, they reached Utrar. There Timur's health had suffered from the severity of the journey and he fell ill with pneumonia. On 17 or 18 February 1405, Tamerlane died. His body was carried back and buried at the Gur - i - Mir, Samarkand.
Thus, as the results of numerous and lasting military campaigns Amir Timur managed to establish a vast and powerful empire consisting of Movarounnahr, Caspian Lands, Khorasan (it is Afghanistan and the north - western part of Iran), a major part of India, Iraq, Iran, the Northern Caucasus and a number of countries of the Front Asia. At that time inter- state cultural and economic relations reached a high level of development.